Lesson no.55 Fish (Samak). (السمك)

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FishFried Fish
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LocustsFried Locusts

Names:

1. In Hadees they are called as Samak. (السمك)
2. In English they are called as Fish
3. In Hindi they are called as Macchli.
Please remember the above names are general names & they are of many types, having different shapes, sizes, types, small, big, different structures & etc.

Quranic references: -

1. In Surah Nahl verse. 14, it is mentioned as:

وَهُوَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ الْبَحْرَ لِتَأْكُلُوا مِنْهُ لَحْمًا طَرِيًّا

Translation: “And He (Allah Ta’ala) is Who has subjected the sea (for you), that you eat these of fresh tender meat (i.e. Fish).
2. In chapter 35 Surah Fatir verse no. 12, It is mentioned as:

وَمَا يَسْتَوِي الْبَحْرَانِ هَذَا عَذْبٌ فُرَاتٌ سَآئِغٌ شَرَابُهُ وَهَذَا مِلْحٌ أُجَاجٌ وَمِن كُلٍّ تَأْكُلُونَ لَحْماً طَرِيّاً وَتَسْتَخْرِجُونَ حِلْيَةً تَلْبَسُونَهَا

Translation: “And the two seas (kind of sea water) Are not alike, (one is) this is palatable sweet & pleasant to drink & (other) that is salt & bitter, and from them both, you eat fresh tender meat (fish) & derive the ornaments that you wear.
3. In chapter 5 Surah Ma’idah verse no. 96. It is mentioned as:

أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ صَيْدُ الْبَحْرِ وَطَعَامُهُ مَتٰعاً لَّكُمْ وَلِلسَّيَّارَةِ

Translation: “Lawful to you I (the pursuit) water game & its use for food-for the benefits of yourselves & those who travel.

Nabiﷺ’s guidance about Samak (السمك) fish: -

Two dead & two types of blood are Halal: -

1. Hazrat Abdullah Bin Umer رضي الله عنه says that Nabiﷺ said “Two dead things & two types of blood are allowed (to eat), the two dead things are Fish & Locusts (الجراد) (Jaradh), & two types of blood are Liver & Spleen”.
[Ibn Ma-jah: 3439; Book. 29; Eng vol. 4; Book. 29, Hadees. 3314]
Locusts (الجراد) (In Hadees they are called as Jaradh) are type of eatable grasshopper green, in Hindi & Urdu it is called as Tidda.

About Locust: -

2. Narrated by Abu Ya’far Al-Abdi رضي الله عنه said that he participated in 6 military expeditions with Nabiﷺ & we eat Locust (الجراد).
[Tirmizi: 1821; Book. 25; English vol. 3; Book. 23, Hadees. 1821]

Sea water & its products: -

3. Hazrat Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه says that one person asked to Nabiﷺ that “we are travelers on sea, & we do not have lot of water with us, can we do wazoo with sea water? Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم answered that, sea water is pure (usable) & its products are also permissible.
[An-Nasai: 332; Book. 2; English vol. 1 Book. 2, Hadees. 333]

First food, eaten by people of Jannat: -

4. Narrated by Anas رضي الله عنه (it is a part of long Hadees) a Jew asked to Nabiﷺ that what will be the first meal taken by the people of Jannat (Paradise)? Nabi ﷺ answered “The first food that will be eaten by people of Jannah (Paradise) will be Caudate or extra lobe of fish liver”.
[Bukhari: 3329; Book. 60; English vol. 4; Book. 55; Hadees. 546]

Amber (sperm whale) fish: -

5. Hazrat Jabir رضي الله عنه says that a group of a Sahabah (companions of Nabiﷺ ) told to Nabiﷺ about their getting & eating of a huge fish for 15 days, (Amber)(sperm whale) which was throw out by the sea, actually they were 300 Sahabah on a journey & all eatables were finished, they had nothing proper to eat since many days, & they saw a huge fish thrown out on the bank, its ribs were very huge & they ate it, Nabi ﷺ answered “It was a provision, which Allah brought for you” (people) & asked, do you have any of its flesh, that you can give us to eat? Hazrat Jabir رضي الله عنه was pleased & he sent some meat to Nabiﷺ which Nabi ﷺ ate. (Some of the part of Hadees is from different Hadees).
[Muslim: 1935 A; Book. 34; English Book. 21; Hadees. 4756]
6. Narrated by Abu Zar رضي الله عنه that "I heard Nabiﷺ saying 'Everyone in the universe, in the heavens and on earth, prays for forgiveness for the scholar (Aalims), even the fishes in the sea."
[Ibn Ma-jah: 245; Book. 1; English vol. 1; Book. 1, Hadees. 239]

Qualities of Fish: -

The fish which has good taste & smell, is of medium size, thin skinned, meat is not tough or dry, lives in clean fresh water, eats plants & do not eat dirt, is of whitest colour etc are best for use.

Scientific benefits: -

1. Fishes are beneficial in hydrocephalus, T.B, ulcers, kidney problems, pain in back & joints & increases libido. It is also beneficial for metabolism because they have natural sulphurs & are good for skin, hairs, nails, joints, brain, heart, kidney, liver, thyroid gland, bones.
2. They are helpful in heart problem, obesity, (because fish oil has conjugated linolenic acid, DHA, EPA); it also reduces cholesterol, triglycerides and controls blood pressure.

Contents of it: -

Vitamin A, D, C, E, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B12, iodine, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, chloride, sulphurs, iron, linolenic acid, D.H.A, E.P.A, unsaturated fatty acids, proteins, omega 3 fatty acids etc.

Uses: -

1. Cooked in gravy, fried or roasted, fish oil like salmon oil, cod liver oil, shark liver oil etc has great health benefits.

The explanation & conclusion of the Hadees: -

The Hadees declares that these things are lawful for Muslims to eat, since it is only Allah who makes things lawful and unlawful. It can be assumed that this Hadees was mentioned after the verse was revealed in which Allah says:

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنْزِيرِ

Translation: Forbidden to you are carrion, blood and the flesh of swine.
[Surah Al-Mâ’idah verse no. 3]

Its legal implications:

The Hadees says that the dead (fish) of the sea are lawful to eat. It says in the Qur’an:

أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ صَيْدُ الْبَحْرِ وَطَعَامُهُ مَتٰعاً لَّكُمْ وَلِلسَّيَّارَةِ

Translation: “Made lawful for you are the game of the sea and its food, a provision for you and for the travelers.”
[Surah Mâ’idah verse no. 96]
A good number of Companions, including Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه, Abu Ayyub رضي الله عنه and Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنهما have explained that “the game of the sea” refers to what is acquired by fishing and that “its food” refers to the sea animals that have died in it.
[Tafsîr al-Tabarî (7/63-69) and Sunan al-Bayhaqî (9/253-255]
Scholars, however, have different opinion regarding the dead fish that float belly-up upon the surface of the water when its occurrence is not as a result of a recent event.
The first opinion is that such fish are lawful to eat. This, as we already mentioned, was the opinion of Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه, Abu Ayyub رضي الله عنه and Ibn Abbâs رضي الله عنهما and a number of other Companions. Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه, for instance, said plainly: “The fish floating upon the surface of the water are lawful, so whoever wants to do so may eat of it.”
[Musannaf `Abd al-Razzâq (4/503) with an authentic chain of transmission]
This opinion was held by a number of successors and jurists, like `Atâ’, Abu Rabâh, Mahkûl, Ibrâhîm Al-Nakha`î and Abu Thawr. It is also the view of the Mâlik, Al-Shâfî`î and Ahmad Bin Hanbalî as well as their respective schools of law.
Of course, the proponents of this view cite the Hadees under discussion as evidence. They also cite the Hadees what Prophet  said about the sea: “Its water purifies and its dead are lawful.” It is the generality of both these Hadees, as well as of the verse mentioned above, that makes their case. The wording of these texts is sweepingly general, not allowing for the exception of anything.
They also cite as evidence the Hadees related by Jabir رضي الله عنه about the expedition under the leadership of Abu Ubaidah that they faced starvation. While they were traveling along the coast came across the carcass & a whale was thrown by the sea on the bank, from which they ate and from which they took some of the meat with them as a provision. When they returned to Madinah, they informed Prophet ﷺ of what they did & He ﷺ said to them: “This is a provision that Allah had brought for you. Do you have with you any of the meat to give to us to eat?” They later sent some of the meat to the Prophet ﷺ) and He ﷺ ate from it.
This story is evidence that the dead of the sea are lawful to eat. It also shows us that it makes no difference whether the animal died in the sea or after it was cast out upon the land, since neither the Companions nor the Prophet ﷺ concerned themselves with ascertaining how the whale had died. One of the well-known principles of Islamic jurisprudence is that whenever the Prophet ﷺ refrained from inquiring into the details of a situation when various possibilities existed, it indicates that the ruling is general and applies regardless of the circumstances.
The second opinion on this matter is that it is disliked in Islamic Law to eat the dead fish that float upon the surface of the water. This was the opinion of Jâbir Bin Zayd and Tâ`ûs. It is also the view that was held by Abu Hanîfah and his colleagues.
They cite the Hadees related by Jabir رضي الله عنه that states: “From what the sea casts out or leaves behind you may eat, but from what dies at sea and floats to the surface you may not eat.” However, Abu Dâwûd says: “Sufyân Al-Thawrî, Ayyub and Hammâd relate this Hadees from Abu Zubayr as being a statement of Jabir رضي الله عنه. This Hadees has been attributed to the Prophet ﷺ with a weak chain of transmission form Ibn Abî Dhi’b from Abu Zubayr from Jabir رضي الله عنه.”
Besides the fact that it cannot be authentically attributed to the Prophet ﷺ it has another defect even when it is related merely as a statement of Jabir رضي الله عنه. Abu Zubayr relates it without saying decisively that he heard it from Jabir رضي الله عنه. For a narrator like Abu Zubayr, this is a problem, since he was known for relating things that he had heard indirectly. A good number of scholars have declared this to be weak, including ``Abd Al-Haqq Al-Ishbîlî, Ibn Al-Qayyim and more recently Al-Albânî.
Al-Nawawî writes:
As for the Hadees that is related from Jabir رضي الله عنه, scholars of Hadees agree on the fact that it is weak and that it cannot be used as evidence even if no other evidence exists to contradict it. How, then, can it be used when it is contradicted by other evidence?
The strongest opinion on the matter is the opinion held by the majority of scholars, since this is the opinion that is supported by the evidence. And Allah knows best.
Author’s opinion: -
Most of the fishes which we eat come from hunting by fishing & they do not die in water nor do they float; so there is no harm & wrong in eating them.

Science & Hadees regarding Fish & locust: -

According to the book “Insects” by Steve Parker, Locusts are an excellent source of protein and contain a variety of fatty acids and minerals, vary in protein content from about 50 percent of dry weight to almost 60 percent, It contains adequate amounts of iodine, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, as well as traces of calcium, magnesium and selenium. Carbohydrate levels are very low in locusts, which makes them a good candidate for Atkins and Paleo types of diets. It has 20 grams of protein and just 6 g of fat per 100g.
Fish liver or fish liver oil: -
"The livers of edible fish are a good source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially those in the omega 3 family, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)," José Luis Guil-Guerrero, lead author of the study, said. These fatty acids are used to prevent and treat various complaints, such as some kinds of cancer, depression, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, behavioural problems and cardiovascular diseases. The study focused on 12 kinds of fish that are commonly eaten in south eastern Spain, such as hake, shortfin mako and European pilchard. The livers of the great weever (Trachinus draco) and the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were those that showed up the highest levels of LCPUFA (51.4% and 47.9% out of the total fatty acids, respectively). In addition, all the species had a combination of omega-3/omega-6 acids that is "beneficial for human consumption," especially in the case of the liver of the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou).
"Unfortunately, discarding these livers means that all their nutritional properties are missed," says Guil-Guerrero, "and if they were used this would also reduce the environmental pollution caused by throwing innards into the water, which is an inherent problem in the fish product processing industry in coastal areas."
Fish oil: -
1. Fish oil decreases cholesterol level, protects from heart diseases and brain strokes, Also protects from arterial hypertension, rheumatoid, eczema and cancers, weight loss, formation of the tissues of the brain, the eyes, the ears, the reproductive glands and the other glands’ tissues, formation of the membranes surrounding all the cells of the body and acting to protect the cells, repairing the nervous tissues as in the case of a herniated disk, one of the principal causes of Sciatica, inflammation of nervous tissues, which is the second main cause of Sciatica.
2. Fish oil contains omega-3, omega 6, which contains both docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients that are important in preventing and managing heart diseases.
Findings show omega-3 fatty acids may help to Lower blood pressure, reduce triglycerides, slow the development of plaque in the arteries, reduce the chance of abnormal heart rhythm, reduce the likelihood of heart attack and stroke and lessen the chance of sudden cardiac death in people with heart diseases, good for brain, bones, skin, hairs, nails, eyes & etc. Fish is beneficial for hydrocephalus (collection of fluid in the brain in infants), tuberculosis, ulcers, kidney problems and pain in the back & joint and increases libido.

Conclusion of Hadees: -

Two dead things & two types of blood are allowed (to eat), the two dead things are Fish & Locusts (الجراد) (Jaraad), & two types of blood are Liver & Spleen, sea water is pure (usable) & its products are also permissible.
First food that will be eaten by people of Jannah (Paradise) will be Caudate or extra lobe of fish liver, 300 Sahabah ate sperm whale a large fish for 15 days. Everyone in the universe, in the heavens and on earth, prays for forgiveness for the scholar (Aalims), even the fishes in the sea. Please consider views of scholars regarding dead animals of sea. This lesson has 6 Hadees.